Integration Rules

In Portable Document Format (PDF) Files

Rubi systematically applies precisely defined rules to efficiently integrate a large class of mathematical expressions. The rules are organized based on the type of the integrand. To view the integration rules, click on one of the following expression types:

The integration rules are hierarchically arranged in the form of a decision tree. By answering true-or-false questions in the tree, it is easy for a human or computer to determine exactly which of the more than 6000 rules is the right one to apply to a given integrand. The rules are displayed in mathematical notation followed by the equivalent Mathematica program code. The following types of comments precede many of the rules:

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